9a). The chaotic (SF4) (South) clinoforms equally suggest soft sediments deformation because of highly variable energy environment accompanying sediments deposition during this period (Fig. An atlas on exploration for Cretaceous low-stand traps by SQEKOR (Pty) Ltd, American Association Petroleum Geologists Study, In: Geology 41, 184, Catuneanu O, O., (2006) Principles of sequence stratigraphy. 10a). In addition, a suite of wireline logs (gamma ray, sonic and density) was interpreted on the Petrel 2015 workstation. 4). Fig. The School of Geosciences at the University of the Witwatersrand and the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of the Western Cape are equally thanked for their institutional support. 1), when a narrow western margin of South Africa was formed when regional rifting, accompanied by volcanism caused the drifting apart of the African and South American plates (Gladczenko et al. Patterns associated with deep-water deposits including turbidite, mass transport, and sediment wave deposits, and shallow-water to continental deposits including shoreface, aeolian, and fluvial deposits will be shown. Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, pp 553–565, Brown, L.F., Brown, L.F, Jr., Benson, J.M., Brink, G.J., Doherty, S., Jollands, A., Jungslager, E.H.A., Keenan, J.H.G., Muntingh, A., And Van Wyk, N.J.S., 1996, Sequence stratigraphy in offshore South Africa divergent basins. J Marine Pet Geol 27:973–992, Levell B, Argent J, Dore AG, Fraser S (2009) Passive margins: overview. 6 and 7), thus suggesting the influence of fluvial systems on the depositional process. An evidence of a uniformly subsiding continental shelf during the Albian period is seen in the northern part of our study area because the Albian sequences (SQ5 and SQ6) are deposited as sub-parallel clinoforms (SF5) (Figs. 6a–c). Henry W. Posamentier is a worldwide consultant in seismic and sequence stratigraphy with a focus on lithofacies prediction risk issues. 10c), an indication of a fluvial channel. J Tectonophys 282:39–82, Hartwig A (2014) Hydrocarbon migration and leakage dynamics of the Orange Basin, South Africa. Appreciation goes to the National Research Foundation for funding the research. Delta distributary channels are not unexpected as the period was characterised by delta progradation due to a regional flooding unconformity (Brown et al., 1996). In the central section, the facies is dominantly of high amplitude and exhibits divergent continuous reflectors (SF6), underlain by hummocky (SF2) reflection configurations around 2.4 s TWT (Fig. This process is a time-consuming and tedious task that involves identification of individual boundaries on 2D seismic profiles and their correlation with each other to produce 3D sequence models. 2000). In: Watkins JS, Drake CL (eds) Studies in continental margin geology. A lithology cross section was constructed from an upscaled lithology by adopting a sequential indicator simulator process to simulate a discrete property (facies). 2009; Fadipe et al. 2010). This era was dominated by a drop in the sedimentation rates as the Orange river switched its discharge outlet towards the north of the basin (Dingle and Hendley 1984) because of the cessation of differential crustal subsidence which influenced erosion in the southern part as a result of a topographic barrier (Dingle et al. 1996). Figure modified from (c) A map showing wells A1 and A2, the 2D seismic lines (L1, L2) and a 3D inline (L3) used for this study. Geological Society, London, 855– 866; doi:https://doi.org/10.1144/0070855. The main findings of this work are summarised below. The horizontal length of each seismic section is 2Km. It is important because geological concepts of stratigraphy can be applied on seismic data and hence, seismic stratigraphy can be used as a predictive tool for … Note seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Hummocky (SF2), Divergent (SF6) and Chaotic (SF4). 11c). The objectives of this study are: (1) the analysis and interpretation of seismic sequences and facies within a chronological framework to infer sedimentary environments of the deposits. These depths (Z) represent seismic horizons and the formation tops (unconformities) mapped within the Orange Basin chronological framework which are marked from SQ7-SQ1 for the current study (Fig. 1997, 1998 and Bauer et al. This 5-day interactive Stratigraphy training course will deal with the fundamentals and practical applications of sequence and seismic stratigraphy. 7a–c). 2). Note seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Sub-parallel/Parallel (SF5), Hummocky (SF2) and Chaotic (SF4). The Cenomanian era (SQ4), which marked the start of the Upper Cretaceous, is characterised by sub-parallel clinoforms (SF5; Fig. (2) The integration of seismic and lithofacies analysis to investigate tectono-sedimentary evolution and the implication for the distribution of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs within the study area. The interpretative methods of Vail 1987, Sangree and Widmier 1979 and Badley (1985) (Table 2) were applied in this study. Papers from a research symposium at the 1975 American Association of Petroleum Geologists and supplemented by later reports became “Seismic Stratigraphy Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration”, one of AAPG’s best-selling book publications. We use two 2D seismic lines (L1, L2) to tie exploration well A1; geophysical logs from two exploration wells A1 and A2 (see Table 1); and an inline (L3) extracted from a 3D reflection survey patch to tie well A2 (Fig. Finally, bulk shifting was done for an amplitude match between the seismic signatures and the synthetic seismogram. SQ1—Cenozoic; SQ2—Maastrichtian/Campanian; SQ3—Turonian; SQ4—Cenomanian; SQ5—Upper Albian; SQ6—Albian; SQ7—Barremian-Aptian. Note seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Sub-parallel (SF5). The SF6 reflection configurations are seen climbing down, a likely indication of variation in the rate of sediment deposition, while SF4 may have occurred in a highly variable energy environment causing the chaotic configurations observed here (SF4). Figure 13 shows the chronostratigraphic correlation of the two wells used for the study showing the various sequences (SQ1–SQ7) investigated. The seismic–well tie shows the depth function Z (m) (Fig. In 1971-1972, Dr. Posamentier was a Fulbright Fellow to Austria. In 2008 he was awarded the Pettijohn Medal for excellence in sedimentology from the Society for Sedimentary geology (SEPM), the William Smith Medal for contributions to applied and economic aspects of geology from the Geological Society of London in 2010, and the Robert Berg Award for Outstanding Petroleum Research from the AAPG in 2012. 1983). Six seismic facies were mapped based on the reflection configurations listed in Table 3. As passive margin terrains are structurally less complex than active tectonic regimes, they preserve sedimentary records which can easily be investigated. 4). Sequence stratigraphy and seismic data are used to define spatial trends in the proportion of cemented beds; sequence stratigraphy provides the vertical constraints, and seismic data provide lateral constraints. Some of the workflows that will be discussed in this presentation include: 1) creative datuming and subsequent stratal slicing, whereby volume flattening, based on horizon picks, is achieved in the absence of easy to interpret reflections, 2) multi-horizon flattening which can be useful for stratal slicing of sections where reflections are not parallel. Edited by: Gemma Aiello. The modern passive margins generally have a mean age of 104 Ma and are a host to 35% of global giant oil discoveries (Bradley 2008; Mann et al. PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to In these instances this workflow is useful for subsequent proportional slicing, for removing velocity-related seismic artifacts such as pull-up, and for correcting the effects of differential compaction, resulting in effective restoration of original stratigraphic architecture. This … 9c). All concepts are illustrated with field examples of seismic and well-log data, including more than 150 referenced publications. The southern part displays low-amplitude, chaotic clinoforms (SF4) (Fig. 7b). Horizontal length of each seismic section is 2 km. J Sediment Res 82:723–746. Finally, six seismic facies units are recognised based on clinoform reflection configurations and geometry, viz. Vail PR (1987) Seismic stratigraphy interpretation procedure. Application of Seismic Reflection Configuration to Stratigraphic Interpretation - 16 papers, plus a Glossary of Seismic Stratigraphy Stratigraphic Models from Seismic Data - 5 papers Product Code: The South American and African plates were part of West Gondwana until the late Jurassic (Fig. It also provides insight into palaeo-environmental conditions that accompanied sedimentary evolution in a passive margin setting like the Orange Basin. This involved analysing the geometry and configurations of the seismic reflectors, including their continuity and amplitude coupled with the identification of reflection patterns, as described by Badley (1985). The southern part shows an initial fining upward sequence around 1500 m and culminates into a likely delta front distributary channel sands at about 1350 m (Fig. The SQ7 (Barremian-Aptian) sequence shows low-amplitude, chaotic facies (SF4) in a v-shaped Incised-Valley Fill (IVF) in the northern part, moderate-amplitude and hummocky reflection configurations (SF2) in the central part, while the southern part equally exhibits a chaotic Incised–Valley Fill (SF4) (Fig. The Orange River supplied sand-rich sediments to the northern part of the Orange Basin around 103 Ma as a result of the reworking of the delta front and marine storm channel bars, as well as wave action effects (Brown et al. Consequently, potential hydrocarbon reservoirs can be explored for drilling campaigns and sampling of cores for reservoir quality analysis and prediction. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). A (North), B (Central) and C (South). The gamma-ray log at the well position shows two prograding coarsening upward sandstone depositional sequences intercalated with silt between 480 and 600 m. This is followed by an aggrading pattern signature and serration of the log, most obvious around the massive siltstone deposit at depth of 400 m (Fig. It will include exercises and case histories for some interpretation and workshop discussion. The southern part exhibits low- to moderate-amplitude chaotic patterns (SF4) (Fig. The SF5 facies is interpreted as a deposition on a uniformly subsiding shelf margin, SF6 facies is suggested to have been deposited due to variation in the rate of sediment supply, SF2 as strata forming as small lobes in a pro-deltaic environments, and SF4 facies is suggested to have been deposited in a high-energy depositional environment which led to the chaotic facies (SF4). WEBINAR. The SQ1 Cenozoic clinoforms in the northern part of the study area show moderately high amplitude and tangential-oblique prograding reflection configurations (SF1) (Fig. 8a). 113-122, Volume 5, Issue 2, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-015-0161-2 The SQ6 Albian sequence exhibits low amplitude, sub-parallel clinoforms (SF5) in the northern part (Fig. Seismic Stratigraphy enables the petroleum geoscientist to understand the geological record through the interpretation of seismic lines (2-D and 3-D), cores, and well logs. In summary, the seismic facies units dominant in this sequence are hummocky (SF2), divergent (SF6) and chaotic (SF4) reflection configurations. Six seismic facies units are recognised based on internal geometry and configurations of the seismic reflectors; Tangential-Oblique (SF1), Hummocky (SF2), Wavy-Parallel (SF3), Chaotic (SF4), Sub-parallel/parallel (SF5) and Divergent (SF6). 2010). Application of seismic stratigraphy and structural analysis in the determination of petroleum plays within the Eastern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. A further proof of this is seen in the northern part of our study area because of the serration of gamma-ray log seen in well A1 (Figs. The basin evolution during the Barremian-Aptian times was characterised by high run-off from the hinterlands which resulted in topographic discontinuities in addition to high thermal subsidence (Kuhlmann 2010). (b) A geological cross section covering the study area showing distribution of lithologies of different ages marked from SQ7 (Barremian-Aptian) to Cenozoic (SQ1) and wells A1 and A2 used for the study. 3). a–c Late-Albian seismic facies configurations and calibrated gamma-ray log with the lithology interpretations at well positions along the N-S profile. 2). Two of the recent hydrocarbon discoveries in conjugate passive margin settings were from the Albian-age sandstone reservoirs of the southern Orange Basin, South Africa (Petroleum Agency SA report 2010), and in Brazil, from the Barremian-Aptian syn-rift non-marine microbial carbonates of the Santos Basin (Scotchman et al. Saucer-shaped depocentres as referred to by Kuhlmann et al. This period is marked by the formation of ‘saucer-shaped depocentres’ in which sedimentation occurred (Kuhlmann et al 2010). Serration of the GR log as observed in the northern and southern part may be attributed to storms and waves dominance which accompanied the deposition of the sediments on the shelf. Advanced methods in seismic stratigraphy; Recognition criteria for the identification of Composite Sequences, Sequence Sets and Depositional Sequences and their components in outcrops, cores, well logs and seismic; Interpretation and mapping techniques for cores, well-logs and seismic lines, from Exploration to Production business stages Balkema, Rotterdam, p 375, Emery KO, Uchupi E, Phillips J, Bowin C, Mascle J (1975) Continental margin off Western Africa Angola to Sierra Leone. 1). The onlap sequences localised to the Barremian-Aptian sequence in the northern and southern part of the study area (Fig. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol (2020). Next, the seismic facies between bounding unconformities are characterised based on the amplitude, continuity and character of reflections of the various depositional sequences (e.g. The chaotic reflection (SF4) configuration often represents a depositional system of mud-rich coarse-grained turbidite channels accompanied by variability in the energy of the depositional environment. A Assoc Pet Geol Memoir 26:165–184, Sangree JB, Widmier JM (1979) Interpretation of depositional facies from seismic data. An aggrading gamma-ray log signature is interpreted in the South, likely due to the stacking up of sand deposits. Zhu Y, Bhattacharya JP, Li W, Lapen TJ, Jicha BR, Singer BS (2012) Milankovitch-scale sequence stratigraphy and stepped forced regressions of the Turonian Ferron Notom deltaic complex, south-central Utah, USA. J Afr Earth Sci GSA 11, abstracts 33, Jungslager E (1999) Petroleum habitats of the Atlantic margin of South Africa. 7c). Papers from a research symposium at the 1975 American Association of Petroleum Geologists and supplemented by later reports became “Seismic Stratigraphy Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration”, one of AAPG’s best-selling book publications. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. 11a). 1983). Stratigraphic and structural features that otherwise would have been overlooked in full bandwidth display were identified. The SF1 is interpreted as shelf margin shoreface (sand rich) deltaic deposits in the North. 12). (b) Map of the Orange Basin showing the wells, seismic data and geological features. On the left are the conceptual representations of the seismic facies. Seismic stratigraphy (Vail et al., 1977) and its offspring, sequence stratigraphy (Posamentier and Vail, 1988), are two interpretation techniques developed to help predicting facies and reservoir distribution beyond well control in the hydrocarbon industry. 4). 2007). The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. The deposit is laterally extensive within the 2.2 s TWT and bounded unconformably by shale at the top and bottom as seen close to well A1. Seven depositional sequences were mapped followed by the creation of lithofacies log interpreted from the gamma-ray log (GR) by setting maximum GR value at 60 API for Sandstone, 60–100 API for Siltstone and above 100 API for Shale. The seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Tangential oblique (SF1), Hummocky (SF2), Wavy-parallel (SF3) and Chaotic (SF4). When the fast Fourier algorithm was applied to seismic reflection data, the seismic signal was broken down into its frequency components and allowed visualization of the data at specific frequencies. These prediction models provide play based exploration targets for areas with similar depositional settings. Course Description. This was followed by the generation of a synthetic seismogram using the density, velocity log, Ricker zero-phase wavelet and the Society of Exploration Geophysicist (SEG) normal polarity with a frequency range between 100 and 125 Hz (Fig. The TWT for the entire sequence ranges between 0.9 and 1.4 s (N–S). a–b (a) The localised chronostratigraphy of the Orange Basin (within study area) detailing the major sequences mapped (SQ7-SQ1) for this study and the events that characterised the evolution of the Western Margin. The seismic facies discrimination criteria used were based on the reflection configuration, internal geometry and amplitude of the reflectors as documented by Badley (1985). 7a) which changes into high amplitude and divergent clinoforms (SF6) in the central part (Fig. The objective of seismic stratigraphic analysis is to identify and map play elements. (Ed. There is no exploration well drilled in the central part of the seismic profile (L2); hence, there is no available well log to compare and validate the analysis of the seismic sequence. Elsevier Radarweg Publishing, AE Amsterdam, pp 42–54. Part 2: the depositional sequence as a basic unit for stratigraphic analysis, In: Payton, C.E. The TWT for the entire sequence ranges between 0.6 and 1.1 s (N–S). A channel is also mapped within the SQ2 sequence close to well A2 (Fig. The SF2 configurations in the Central part could represent strata forming as small clinoform lobes in a pro-deltaic environment, while the SF3 represents shelfal deposits accompanied by strong wave action. Scotchman, I. C., Gilchrist, G., Kusznir, N. J., Roberts, A. M. and Fletcher, R.2010, The breakup of the South Atlantic Ocean: formation of failed spreading axes and blocks of thinned continental crust in the Santos Basin, Brazil and its consequences for petroleum system development.In: Vining, B. 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